antibiotics prevent bacterial infection

how antibiotics prevent bacterial infection and what is antibiotic resistance

Introduction of antibiotic

antibiotics prevent bacterial infection
antibiotics prevent bacterial infection

Antibiotics are the type of drugs that are used to prevent bacterial infection. Antibiotics prevent bacterial infection in two ways first by killing the attacking bacteria and second way by its working is inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics play a vital role in

modern medicine to prevent bacterial infection and their treatment


Discovery of antibiotic


The discovery of antibiotics has recolonized the medical industry. Alexander Fleming was a Scottish bacteriologist who worked in a hospital in London where he discovered the antibiotic penicillin. Fleming observed that a mold called Penicillium produced a substance that killed a wide range of bacteria. This discovery led to the development of penicillin as a drug.


Types of antibiotic

Antibiotics are classified based on the mechanism of action into two types

Bactericidal

These antibiotics perform their action by killing bacteria. Their example includes Penicillins and Cephalosporins.

Bacteriostatic

These antibiotics perform their action by inhibiting bacterial growth. Their example include Tetracyclines and Sulfonamides


Mechanism of action

Inhibiting cell wall synthesis

Drugs like penicillins and cephalosporins interfere with the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall.

Disrupting protein synthesis

Drugs like tetracyclines are bacteriostatic and perform their action by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis.

Inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis

Drugs like sulfonamides are bacteriostatic and perform their action by stopping dividing bacteria. They inhibit the synthesis of folic acid in bacteria. Folic acid is required to make new DNA. So bacteria stop dividing.


Significance of antibiotic

Antibiotics prevent bacterial infection

Antibiotics prevent bacterial infection by killing bacteria. These antibiotics are useful in the treatment of pneumonia, bronchitis, various types of skin infections, and many other diseases caused by bacteria.

Agriculture

Antibiotics prevent  bacterial infection in livestock


bacterial infection

A bacterial infection occurs when harmful bacteria enter the body and cause illness. Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that exist in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. While many bacteria are harmless or even beneficial, some can cause infections that range from mild to severe. Antibiotics are very useful in the treatment of bacterial infections. 


Antibiotic resistance

As we know antibiotics kill bacteria however bacteria have the capability of developing resistance to them. When bacteria are exposed to the same antibiotic over and over the bacteria can change and no longer be affected by the same antibiotic.

Ways of developing antibiotic resistance
  • They can develop antibiotic resistance by changing their morphology.
  • they can also develop ways to inactivate or neutralize the antibiotic.
  • they can also transfer the genes coding for antibiotic resistance to other bacteria to acquire antibiotic resistance.

 


Conclusion

Antibiotics remain a cornerstone of modern medicine, vital for treating bacterial infections and saving lives. Ongoing research and responsible usage are essential to preserve their efficacy for future generations.

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